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Table 1 Physiological characteristics of ten Penicillium species cultivated in 1 L bioreactors in DM and CM

From: Physiological characterization of secondary metabolite producing Penicillium cell factories

Species Biomass yield growth phase (Ysx)
DM (g DW/g glucose)
Lag phase
DM (h)
Morphology
DM
Lag phase
CM (h)
Morphology
CM
P. flavigenum 0.58 ± 0.05 14.3 ± 0.5 Small clumps/dispersed 10.9 ± 0.3 Dispersed
P. nalgiovense 0.60 ± 0.17 22.5 ± 0.8 Dispersed 14.5 ± 0.1 Dispersed
P. coprophilum 0.37 ± 0.03 23.3 ± 0.6 Pellet 12.2 ± 0.6 Dispersed
P. decumbens 0.55 ± 0.02 17.8 ± 0.9 Dispersed 13.8 ± 0.2 Dispersed
P. vulpinum 0.54 ± 0.14 37.6 ± 1.4 Pellet + clumps + wall 18.3 ± 0.2 Dispersed
P. polonicum 0.25 ± 0.01 30.3 ± 1.7 Wall growth 11.3 ± 0.1 Dispersed
P. antarcticum 0.58 ± 0.03 19.7 ± 0.2 Dispersed 12.5 ± 0.1 Dispersed
P. steckii 0.37 ± 0.02 10.9 ± 2.3 Pellet + wall growth 13.5 ± 0.2 Dispersed
P. solitum 0.29 ± 0.13 19.9 ± 1.2 Pellet + wall growth 9.9 ± 0.2 Dispersed
P. arizonense 0.67 ± 0.04 21.4 ± 0.4 Dispersed 14.0 ± 0.8 Dispersed
  1. Biomass yield on glucose (g DW/g glucose), duration of lag phase (h) and observed morphology at the time point where the CO2 was at its maximum