Skip to main content

Table 2 Overview of some metabolites obtained from filamentous fungi and yeasts.

From: Recent advances in the intellectual property landscape of filamentous fungi

Ingredient Compound Producing fungus Application
Enzymes Amylase Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae Production of glucose syrup, bread improvement, etc.
Invertase Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. uvarium Soft-centred candies, artificial honeys, confectioneries, liqueurs, etc.
Galactosidase Mortierella vinaceae Beet sugar refining
Lactase Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, K. fragilis Production of lactose-free milk and dairy products, upgrading cheese whey
Pectins Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp. Juice clarification, improvement of grape juice yield, removing coffee mucilage, etc.
Proteases Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus spp. Bread improvement, chill proofing of beer, milk coagulation, meat tenderization, etc.
Fatty acids O3 and O6 Mortierella alpina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida lipolytica Addition of polyunsaturated fat acids (bioactive compounds) to the composition of food and food products
Flavouring Blue cheese flavour Penicillium roqueforti Impress blue cheese flavour in food products
Bitter almond flavour Ischnoderma spp. Impress almond flavour in food products
Roselike odor Saccharomyces spp., Kluyveromyces spp. General food flavouring
Fruity, nutty, and fatty odor Candida lipolytica, Pichia ohmeri General food flavouring
Organic acids Citric acid Aspergillus niger, Candida lipolytica Soft drinks, jams, jellies, candies, frozen fruits, dairy products, wine, etc.
Gluconic acid Aspergillus niger Cleansing milk, beer and soft drinks bottles, baking products, etc.
Pigments and vitamins Beta-carotene Blakeslea trispora Orange-red food colorants, vitamin A precursor and antioxidant
Lycopene Blakeslea trispora Red food colorant and bioactive compound
Monascus pigments Monascus spp. Spice and yellow, orange and red food colorants in Asia, meet preservatives
Natural red Penicillium oxalicum Red food colorant
Riboflavin Ashbya gossypii Yellow colorant and B2 vitamin