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Table 1 Pigment production by Neurospora spp. using different experimental set-ups

From: Filamentous ascomycetes fungi as a source of natural pigments

Ascomycete Substrate Mode of operationb Pigment(s) λ max (nm)a Pigment extraction solvent Production References
Neurospora crassa 60% tapioca by product and 40% tofu waste SSF β-Carotene (yellow-orange) 429, 452, 478 THF 295 µg/g [13, 38, 39]
Neurospora crassa 74-OR23-1A Vogel’s minimal broth SmF, in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask Neurosporaxanthin 477 Acetone [23, 40]
Neurospora crassa Not defined medium with addition of 1% Bacto-Difco agar Fernbach flasks (200 ml) for 15 days, followed by 1 day in plastic tent (oxygen atmosphere) (SSF) Neurosporaxanthin 477.5, 504 (in petroleum ether), 471.5, 496 (in acetone) Acetone, petroleum ether 0.33 mg/g dry weight [22, 23]
Neurospora sitophila Not defined medium with addition of 1 g/l Bacto-Difco yeast extract Aerated flasks for 6 days, wet mycelial was then placed on petri dishes in a transparent plastic tent for 1 day. (SSF) Neurosporaxanthin 477 (petroleum ether) Methanol, petroleum ether 0.04 mg/g dry weight [22, 23]
Neurospora intermedia N-1 Maltose, peptone, yeast extract, Mg2+ fermentationmedia SmF* in 1 l Erlenmeyer flask Yellow-orange 480 1 g of spores was extracted with 5 ml of acetone 24.31 µg/g spores [9]
Neurospora intermedia (PTCC 5291) Vogel’s growth medium SmF* in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks Mixture of carotenoids 470 50 mg dried mycelia were extracted in 3 ml methanol, re-extracted with 3 ml of acetone 500 mg/l [36]
  1. aTotal carotenoids content is determined by spectral absorption at specific wavelengths maxima depending on which solvent the carotenoids are extracted in. The absorbance value correlates to the amount of carotenoids present in the samples
  2. bSolid-state fermentation (SSF), submerged fermentation (SmF)