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Figure 1 | Fungal Biology and Biotechnology

Figure 1

From: Fungal biology in the post-genomic era

Figure 1

Divergence and horizontal transmission of XanA homologues. Left panel: Alignment of the paralogues of Amorphotheca resinæ (labelled Amore plus the accession number in the JGI database) with the characterised enzymes of A. nidulans and S. pombe[36],[37],[40]. Amore_142784 is the orthologue of XanA, note strict conservation of all functional residues only for this paralogue among A. resinæ sequences. The putative orthologue of Phytophthora parasitica (gi|568015616|gb|ETL89793.1) also shows conservation of all functional residues. The Fe++ binding residues are, as expected, conserved in all paralogues. Alignment carried out with MAFT (G-INS-i) visualisation with Box-shade. Right panel: A maximum likelihood rooted tree of putative orthologues of XanA representing different fungal taxons. Green: Ascomycetes, Pezizmycotina, Blue: Ascomycetes, Saccharomycotina, Purple, Ascomycetes, Taphrinomycotina. Olive green: Mucoromycotina, Black: Basidiomycota. Red: P. parasitica, Oomycetes. Note the anomalous position of U. maydis. The conservation of crucial residues together with the position of P. parasitica within the Pezizomycotina is a clear mark of horizontal transmission. R. minuta, Rhodotorula minuta, Pucciniomycotina; U. maydis, Ustilago maydis, (Ustilaginomycotina); C. cinerea, Coprinopsis cinerea, C. neoformans, Cryptococcus neoformans, (Agaricomycotina); A. resinæ, Amorphotheca resinæ (Leotiomycetes); A. nidulans, Aspergillus nidulans, (Eurotiomycetes); C. grayi, Cladonia grayi, (Lecaranomycetes); N. crassa, Neurospora crassa, (Sordariomycetes); C. berberidis, Curcubitaria berberidis, (Dothideomycetes); W. mikolæ, Wilcoxina mikolæ (Pezizomycetes), S. pombe, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, (Taphrinomycotina); P. blakesleeanus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus, M. circinelloindes (Mucoromycotina), D. hansenii, Debaromyces hansenii, K. lactis, Kluyveromyces lactis, Y. lipolytica, Yarrowia lipolytica (Saccharomycotina). We have included species where some experimental work was extant [36], and in other cases we chose the closest homologue to XanA within the taxon. Alignments carried out with MAFT (G-INS-i, ), http://mafft.cbrc.jp/alignment/server/ , Curation with BMG1 [41], both with defaults parameters, tree generated with PhyML [42], digits in nodes are aLRTs (Approximate Likelihood ratio test [43]. Circular tree redrawn with Figtree (http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree/).

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