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Table 2 Concentrations and conversion yields for the 6 best organic acid producers

From: Exploring fungal biodiversity: organic acid production by 66 strains of filamentous fungi

  Concentration (g.L −1 ) Mean Y P/S (%)
Aspergillus brasiliensis (BRFM103)
Oxalic acid 0.4 ± 0.1 1.2
Citric acid 0.5 ± 0.1 1.5
Malic acid 0.7 ± 0.2 2.0
Ethanol 3.9 ± 1.0 10.8
Residual glucose 14.2 ± 1.7  
Aspergillus niger (BRFM420)
Oxalic acid 2.0 ± 0.4 7.0
Citric acid 0.5 ± 0.1 1.9
Residual glucose 21.6 ± 3.8  
Aspergillus niger (BRFM421)
Oxalic acid 0.4 ± 0.1 1.4
Gluconic acid 2.6 ± 0.5 9.5
Malic acid 0.4 ± 0.1 1.6
Ethanol 4.0 ± 0.7 14.5
Residual glucose 22.9 ± 1.1  
Aspergillus niger (BRFM422)
Oxalic acid 0.4 ± 0.1 1.3
Citric acid 2.5 ± 0.6 7.7
Tartaric acid 0.2 ± 0.1 0.6
Gluconic acid 3.4 ± 0.1 10.4
Succinic acid 0.8 ± 0.1 2.3
Fumaric acid 0.7 ± 0.2 2.3
Residual glucose 17.6 ± 1.3  
Aspergillus niger (BRFM431)
Oxalic acid 0.9 ± 0.1 3
Citric acid 2.4 ± 0.4 8.2
Gluconic acid 4.7 ± 0.6 15.6
Malic acid 0.4 ± 0.1 1.5
Succinic acid 0.7 ± 0.1 2.2
Residual glucose 20.4 ± 1.6  
Aspergillus niger (BRFM434)
Oxalic acid 0.6 ± 0.1 2.2
Citric acid 0.4 ± 0.1 1.4
Gluconic acid 2.4 ± 0.8 8.5
Ethanol 2.1 ± 0.5 7.4
Residual glucose 21.9 ± 1.7  
  1. Yields are expressed in g of product per g of glucose consumed.
  2. (± SD), n = 3.